Grade 12

AMU4M-Music
This course enables students to enhance their musical literacy through the creation,appreciation, analysis, and performance of music. Students will perform traditional,commercial, and art music, and will respond with insight to live and recorded performances. Students will enhance their understanding of the function of music in society and the impact of music on themselves and various communities and cultures. Students will analyse how to apply skills developed in music to their life and careers.
Prerequisite:   Grade 11 Music, University/College Preparation

AVI4M – Visual Arts
This course focuses on enabling students to refine their use of the creative process when creating and presenting two- and three-dimensional art works using a variety of traditional and emerging media and technologies. Students will use the critical analysis process to deconstruct art works and explore connections between art and society. The studio program enables students to explore a range of materials, processes, and techniques that can be applied in their own art production. Students will also make connections between various works of art in personal, contemporary, historical, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation

AWQ4M – Photography
This course focuses on the refinement of students’ skills and knowledge in the photographic arts. Students will work with alternative, traditional and digital photographic art forms; use theories of art to analyse and produce photographic art; and increase their understanding of stylistic changes in modern and contemporary photographic art, Canadian (including Native Canadian) art and photographic art forms from various parts of the world. The emphasis of the course will be based upon students creating their own extended body of work on developed themes.
Prerequisite:Photography, Grade 11, University/College Preparation

ASM4M – Media Arts
This course emphasizes the refinement of media arts skills through the creation of a thematic body of work by applying traditional and emerging technologies, tools, and techniques such as multimedia, computer animation, installation art, and performance art. Students will develop works that express their views on contemporary issues and will create portfolios suitable for use in either career or postsecondary education applications. Students will critically analyze the role of media artists in shaping audience perceptions of identity, culture, and community values.
Prerequisite: Media Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation

BOH4M – Business Leadership: Management Fundamentals
This course focuses on the development of leadership skills used in managing a successful business. Students will analyse the role of a leader in business, with a focus on decision making, management of group dynamics,workplace stress and conflict, motivation of employees, and planning. Effective business communication skills, ethics, and social responsibility are also emphasized.
Prerequisite: None

BAT4M-Financial Accounting Principles
This course introduces students to advanced accounting principles that will prepare them forpostsecondary studies in business. Students will learn about financial statements for various forms of business ownership and how those statements are interpreted in making business decisions.This course expands students’ knowledge of sources of financing, further develops accounting methods for assets, and introduces accounting for partnerships and corporations.
Prerequisite: Financial Accounting Fundamentals, Grade 11, University/College Preparation

HZT4U-Philosophy: Questions & Theories
This course enables students to acquire an understanding of the nature of philosophy and philosophical reasoning skills and to develop and apply their knowledge and skills while exploring specialized branches of philosophy (the course will cover at least three of the following branches: metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, philosophy of science, social and political philosophy, aesthetics).Students will develop critical thinking and philosophical reasoning skills as they formulate and evaluate arguments related to a variety of philosophical questions and theories. They will also develop research and inquiry skills related to the study and practice of philosophy.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

HHS4M -Individuals and Families in a diverse Society
This course applies current theories and research from the disciplines of anthropology, psychology, and sociology to the study of individual development, family behaviour, intimate and parent-child relationships, and the ways in which families interact within the diverse Canadian society. You will learn the interpersonal skills required in order to contribute to the well-being of families, and the investigative skills to conduct and evaluate research about individuals and families.
Prerequisites: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

HSB4U – Challenge and Change
This course focuses on the use of social science theories, perspectives, and methodologies to investigate and explain shifts in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour and their impact on society. Students will critically analyse how and why cultural, social, and behavioural patterns change over time. They will explore the ideas of social theorists and use those ideas to analyse causes of and responses to challenges such as technological change, deviance, and global inequalities. Students will explore ways in which social science research methods can be used to study social change.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies.

HHS4U – Families in Canada
This course enables students to draw on sociological, psychological, and anthropological theories and research to analyse the development of individuals, intimate relationships, and family and parent-child relationships. Students will focus on issues and challenges facing individuals and families in Canada’s diverse society. They will develop analytical tools that enable them to assess various factors affecting families and to consider policies and practices intended to support families in Canada. They will develop the investigative skills required to conduct and communicate the results of research on individuals, intimate relationships, and parent-child relationships.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

NDG4M- Aboriginal Governance
This course investigates how Aboriginal governments exercise authority and demonstrate responsibilities associated with governance in Canada. Students will explore Aboriginal world views regarding identity, relationships among Aboriginal peoples and between Aboriginal peoples and other Canadians, and Aboriginal definitions of sovereignty. Students will also compare traditional and contemporary forms of Aboriginal governance and will examine Aboriginal and Cannadian relations, focusing on empowerment and the inherent right to self-government.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11 university, university/college, or college preparation course in Native studies

HNB4M-The World of Fashion
This course gives students the opportunity to explore the world of fashion. Students will learn how to create a fashion product using various tools, techniques, and technologies while developing their practical skills. Students will learn about various factors that affect the global fashion industry, the needs of specialized markets, and the impact of fibre and fabric production and care. In addition, they will learn about social and historical influences on fashion. Students will apply research skills when investigating aspects of the fashion world.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

HFA4M – Food & Nutrition
This course examines various nutritional, psychological, social, cultural, and global factors that influence people’s food choices and customs. Students will learn about current Canadian and worldwide issues related to food, frameworks for making appropriate dietary choices, and food-preparation techniques. This course also refines students’ skills used in researching and investigating issues related to food and nutrition.
Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in social sciences and humanities, English, or Canadian and world studies

CGR4M – Environment and Resource Management
This course investigates the complexity and fragility of ecosystems and the pressures human activities place on them. Students will examine ecological processes, the principles of sustainability, and strategies for resource management, with a focus on the challenges of environmental degradation and resource depletion. Students will use geotechnologies and skills of geographic inquiry to explain and evaluate various approaches to achieving a more sustainable relationship between people and their environment.
Prerequisite: Any university, university/college, or college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities

CGW4U – Canadian & World Issues
This course examines the global challenges of creating a sustainable and equitable future, focusing on current issues that illustrate these challenges. Students will investigate a range of topics, including cultural, economic, and geopolitical relationships , regional disparities in the ability to meet basic human needs, and protection of the natural environment . Students will use geo technologies and skills of geographic inquiry and analysis to develop and communicate balanced opinions about the complex issues facing Canada and a world that is interdependent and constantly changing.
Prerequisite: Any 3U or 3M level Canadian and World Studies, English or Social Studies and Humanities course

CHI4U – Canada: History, Identity, Culture
This course explores the challenges associated with the formation of a Canadian national identity. Students will examine the social, political, and economic forces that have shaped Canada from the pre-contact period to the present and will investigate the historical roots of contemporary issues from a variety of perspectives. Students will use critical-thinking and communication skills to consider events and ideas in historical context, debate issues of culture and identity, and present their own views.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities

CHY4U – World History
This course investigates the major trends in Western civilization and world history from the sixteenth century to the present. Students will learn about the interaction between the emerging West and other regions of the world and about the development of modern social, political, and economic systems. They will use critical-thinking and communication skills to investigate the historical roots of contemporary issues and present their conclusions.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities

CLN4U – Canadian & International Law
This course examines elements of Canadian and international law in social, political, and global contexts. Students will study the historical and philosophical sources of law and the principles and practices of international law and will learn to relate them to issues in Canadian society and the wider world. Students will use critical-thinking and communication skills to analyze legal issues, conduct independent research, and present the results of their inquiries in a variety of ways.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities

CPW4U – Canadian & World Politics
This course examines Canadian and world politics from a variety of perspectives. Students will investigate the ways in which individuals, groups, and states work to influence domestic and world events, the role of political ideologies in national and international politics, and the dynamics of international cooperation and conflict resolution. Students will apply critical thinking and communication skills to develop and support informed opinions about current political conflicts, events, and issues.
Prerequisite: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English or social sciences and humanities.

ENG4U – English
This course emphasizes the consolidation of the literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyse a range of challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures; interpret and evaluate informational and graphic texts; and create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using academic language coherently and confidently, selecting the reading strategies best suited to particular texts and particular purposes for reading, and developing greater control in writing. The course is intended to prepare students for university, college, or the workplace.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 11, Academic

ETS4U -Studies in Literature
This course is for students with a special interest in literature. The course may focus on themes, genres, time periods, or countries. Students will study a variety of forms and stylistic elements of literary texts and respond personally, critically, and creatively to them. They will also investigate critical interpretations and complete an independent study project.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 11, University Preparation

ECW4U-The Writer’s Craft
This course emphasizes knowledge and skills related to the craft of writing. Students will analyse models of effective writing; use a workshop approach to produce a range of works; identify and use techniques required for specialized forms of writing; and identify effective ways to improve the quality of their writing. They will also complete a major paper as part of a creative or analytical independent study project and investigate opportunities for publication and for writing careers.
Prerequisite: English, Grade 11, University Preparation

MHF4U – Advanced Functions
This course extends students’ experience with functions. Students will investigate the properties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs.
Prerequisite: Functions, MCR3U; or Mathematics for College Technology, MCT4C

MCV4U – Calculus and Vectors
This course builds on students’ previous experience with functions and their developing understanding of rates of change. Students will solve problems involving geometric and algebraic representations of vectors and representations of lines and planes in three dimensional space; broaden their understanding of rates of change to include the derivatives of polynomial, sinusoidal, exponential, rational, and radical functions; and apply these concepts and skills to the modelling of real-world relationships. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended for students who choose to pursue careers in fields such as science, engineering, economics, and some areas of business, including those students who will be required to take a university-level calculus, linear algebra, or physics course.
Prerequisite:Advanced Functions MHF4U (Note: MHF4U can be taken concurrently).

MDM4U – Mathematics & Data Management
This course broadens students’ understanding of mathematics as it relates to managing data. Students will apply methods for organizing and analysing large amounts of information; solve problems involving probability and statistics; and carry out a culminating investigation that integrates statistical concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. Students planning to enter university programs in business, the social sciences, and the humanities will find this course of particular interest.
Prerequisite: Functions, MCR3U OR Functions and Applications, MCF3M

SBI4U – Biology
This course provides students with the opportunity for in-depth study of the concepts and processes associated with biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis, and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on achievement of the detailed knowledge and refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields.
Prerequisite: Biology 11 SBI3U, University preparation

SCH4U – Chemistry
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, energy changes and rates of reaction, chemical systems and equilibrium, electrochemistry, and atomic and molecular structure. Students will further develop problem-solving and laboratory skills as they investigate chemical processes, at the same time refining their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in daily life, and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 11, SCH3U, University Preparation

SPH4U – Physics
This course enables students to deepen their understanding of physics concepts and theories. Students will continue their exploration of energy transformations and the forces that affect motion, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Students will also explore the wave nature of light, quantum mechanics, and special relativity. They will further develop their scientific investigation skills, learning, for example, how to analyse, qualitatively and quantitatively, data related to a variety of physics concepts and principles. Students will also consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment.
Prerequisite: Physics 11,SPH3U, University Preparation.

SES4U – Earth and Space Science
This course develops students’ understanding of Earth and its place in the universe. Students will investigate the properties of and forces in the universe and solar system and analyse techniques scientists use to generate knowledge about them. Students will closely examine the materials of Earth, its internal and surficial processes, and its geological history, and will learn how Earth’s systems interact and how they have changed over time. Throughout the course, students will learn how these forces, processes, and materials affect their daily lives. The course draws on biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics in its consideration of geological and astronomical processes that can be observed directly or inferred from other evidence.
Prerequisite: Science, Grade 10, Academic

PSE4U – Exercise Science
This course focuses on the study of human movement and of systems, factors, and principles involved in human development. Students will learn about the effects of physical activity on health and performance, the evolution of physical activity and sports, and the factors that influence an individual’s participation in physical activity. The course prepares students for university programs in physical education, kinesiology, recreation, and sports administration.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 11 university or university/college preparation course in science, or any Grade 11 or 12 open course in health and physical education

TGJ4O- Communications Technology: Digital Imagery and Web Design,
This course enables students to develop knowledge and skills in the areas of photography, digital imaging, animation, 3D modelling, and web design. Students will work both independently and as part of a production team to design and produce media products in a project-driven environment. Practical projects may include photo galleries, digital images, animations, 3D models, and websites. Students will also expand their awareness of environmental and societal issues related to communications technology, and will explore postsecondary education, training, and career opportunities
Prerequisite: none